McKinsey trīs izaugsmes horizontu stratēģija

McKinsey matricu ir mācījies jebkurš uzņēmējdarbības vai mārketinga students. Šī slavenā shēma, bez kuras neiztiek gandrīz neviens attiecīgās tēmas bakalaura un maģistra darbs, tika radīta pagājušajā gadsimtā. Taču šodien McKinsey vārdu nes  liels uzņēmums, kas darbojas gan pētniecībā, gan analīzē, gan konsultācijās. Kā arī top jaunākās teorijas un pasaules ekonomikas tendenču  analīze.

Manu interesi piesaistīja pavisam nesen – pagājušā gada decembrī – klajā nākusī McKinsey trīs izaugsmes horizontu stratēģija. Šīs stratēģijas pamatā ir mēģinājums atbildēt uz jautājumu, ko darīt uzņēmumam, kad tas jau ir sasniedzis savu pilnbrieda (maturity) fāzi. Šīs idejas autors  Steve Coley to oficiāli  ir nosaucis par „Izaugsmes alķīmiju”.

Kā zināms, produkta dzīves ciklam ir – ieiešana tirgū, izaugsme, pilnbrieds un noriets. Neviena no šīm dzīvescikla fāzēm nav vienkārša, taču, manuprāt, vislielākais jautājums rodas, ko darīt  tad, kad produkts atrodas pilnbriedā, kad tirgus jau ir iekarots un grandiozu iespēju tieši šim produktam vairs nav. Tas, cik gara ir pilnbrieda fāze, ir atkarīgs tikai no uzņēmuma spējas arī turpmāk uzturēt interesi par attiecīgo produktu. Vai mēs šodien kaut ko zinātu par Walt Disney mikipelēm, ja tās būtu palikušas tikai multiplikācijas filmu līmenī? Droši vien nē, ja nebūtu radīti visi tie blakus produkti, kas palīdz uzturēt tēlu un pielāgot to atbilstoši mūsdienām. Disnejlenda Orlando un Parīzē, grāmatas, žurnāli ir aizberga redzamākās daļas. Taču arī šodien Disneja kompānija domā par jaunu pieeju saviem varoņiem, lai tie neizzustu no tirgus, jo konkurenti nesnauž.   Šodien Disney strādā pie zīmola pārveidošanas, un, kā pirmā jaunā parādīšanās pēc re-brandinga būs Nintendo Wii videospēle Epic Mickey, kurā tiks mainīts ierastais varoņa raksturs.

„Izaugsmes alķīmijas” teorijas pamatā ir doma par uzņēmuma darbības uzlabošanu, lai maksimāli saglabātu uzņēmuma vērtību jebkurā uzņēmuma vai tā produkta dzīvescikla fāzē. Autors piedāvā domu, ka uzņēmumam būtu jādomā un jādarbojas tādos kā trīs horizontos –

  1. Pašreizējā biznesa uzturēšana, aizsardzība un paplašināšana
  2. Kāds jauns – jau procesā esošs bizness/produkts
  3. Idejas, attīstība, nākotnes perspektīvu izstrāde

Šī teorija autoram ir radusies pētot daudzus uzņēmumus, jo pats grūtākais, ar ko parasti uzņēmumi netiek galā, ir spēja veikt šos visus procesus sabalansēti un vienlaicīgi. Prakse rāda, ka 99% uzņēmuma vadītāji koncentrējas uz vienu no horizontiem, pārējos atstājot novārtā. Idejas autori uzskata, ka 2. un 3. horizonts prasa ļoti daudz uzmanības un iesaistīšanās no augstākās uzņēmuma vadības. Mērķis, kas būtu jāsasniedz, lai 3. horizonta darbības rezultāti pēc iespējas ātrāk nonāktu 2. horizontā un sāktu nest peļņu.

Sīkāku un grafiskāku idejas izklāstu variet redzēt un noklausīties šeit:

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Harward Business Review ir publicējis pagājušās dekādes vadības ideju tendenču kopsavilkumu. Šeit būs…

The Decade in Management Ideas

January 1, 2010 , by Julia Kirby

1.Shareholder Value as a Strategy. The notion of producing attractive returns for investors is as old as investing, but this was a decade when the pursuit of shareholder value eclipsed too much else. Increasingly sophisticated tools and metrics for value-based managementpushed the consideration of stock price effects deep into operational decision-making, and made sure everything pointed toward bonus day. By 2009, even the man most known for focusing on value was saying it was adumb idea. “Shareholder value is a result, not a strategy,” Jack Welch proclaimed. “Your main constituencies are your employees, your customers and your products.”

2.IT as a Utility. The current mania for cloud computing is the latest step in a long process by which enterprises have dispensed with their proprietary glass houses and begun buying computing capabilities as services. One impetus was the Y2K scare, which forced attention onto those onerous legacy systems as the new millennium dawned.

3.The Customer Chorus. Through a range of technical and social developments, customers’ voices grew louder (whether collectively in ratings systems like Amazon’s, or individually through viral kvetches like Dave Carroll’s “United Breaks Guitars“) and companies found ways to listen. It’s a true megatrend: the steps along the way have felt gradual and natural, but collectively they change everything.

3.Enterprise Risk Management. Sounds crazy right now to say that the last decade was notable for risk management. But especially after 9/11, companies saw the sense of bringing the many and various pockets of it under the same umbrella. Newly empowered chief risk officers looked for trouble spots on a landscape ranging from financial hedging to pirates on the open sea.

4The Creative Organization. The decade saw a general revolution in the way many organizations came to view their source of competitive advantage, and a commitment to finding ways to produce creative output more reliably. Even before they embraced “design thinking,” managers were encouraging collaboration, drawing on diverse perspectives, and engaging whole workforces in “ideation.”

5.Open Source. Purist geeks will be quick to point out that the term open source and some very substantial achievements came in the late 1990s, but here we pay homage to the spread of that model beyond software code. Was it only in 2001 that Wikipedia was born? And how many things have been wiki’ed since?

6.Going Private. Cheap debt reignited the LBO scene just as post-Enron reforms created real disincentives to operate as a public company. As the decade wore on, private equity’s playbookfor turning around businesses was increasingly held up as best-practice management. Now, ideas like, ahem, leveraging up don’t seem so wise, but private equity’s devotion to strategic focus and demanding governance might endure.

7.Behavioral Economics. Okay, by now, you’re all shouting “that’s definitely older than 10 years” and you’re right. But talk about a set of ideas whose time has come. In the prior decade, can you remember when someone with Steven Levitt’s profile had a breakout bestseller? Or when someone modifying the word economist with “rogue” (or “rock star”) could keep a straight face?

8.High Potentials. Consulting firms and other deeply knowledge-based businesses knew this all along, but in the past decade the rest of the corporate world woke up to the fact that some managers are more equal than others. Formal programs were established to identify, cultivate, and retain “hi-po’s”. Executive coaching, a perk often provided for the anointed, experienced explosive growth as an industry.

9.Competing on Analytics. Decades of investment in systems capturing transactions and feedback finally yielded a toolkit for turning all that data into intelligence. Operations research types, long consigned to engineering realms like manufacturing scheduling, got involved in marketing decisions. Managers started learning from experiments that were worthy of the name.

10.  Reverse Innovation. The bigger story here is the maturation of the concept of globalization, particularly with regard to emerging economies. Most big corporations in 2000 saw them primarily as a source of natural resources and, increasingly, cheap labor. Then, as rising employment fueled the development of middle classes, cities in India and China came to represent valuable markets. Now, these non-US consumers are coming to the foreground. Firms like GE and Microsoft are doing R&D in emerging markets, optimizing on those preferences and constraints, and then bringing the results back home.

11.  Sustainability. More than anything, the first ten years of the 21st century will be remembered as the decade that businesses went green — if only in their marketing to a public highly attuned to Al Gore’s inconvenient truth. We’re not cynical on this point, however. The efforts we see by companies large and small to reduce their carbon footprints and other environmental impacts are sincere and effective, as far as they go. But ten years from now, as we revisit this exercise, forgive us if we declare 2010-2020 to be the decade of sustainability. “The idea was in the air before 2010,” we can picture ourselves writing. “But this was the decade when it really took hold.”